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Hypothermia

When exposed to cold temperatures, your body begins to lose heat faster than it can be produced.

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When exposed to cold temperatures, your body begins to lose heat faster than it can be produced.

  • Low body temperature may make you unable to think clearly or move well.
  • You may not know that you have hypothermia.
  • If your temperature is below 95°, the situation is an emergency and you should immediately call 911.

Prolonged exposure to cold will eventually use up your body’s stored energy. The result is hypothermia, or abnormally low body temperature. Body temperature that is too low affects the brain, making the victim unable to think clearly or move well. This makes hypothermia particularly dangerous because a person may not know it is happening and won’t be able to do anything about it.

Hypothermia is most likely to occur at very cold temperatures, but it can occur even at cool temperatures (8°C) if a person becomes chilled from rain, sweat, or submersion in cold water.

Victims of hypothermia are often (1) elderly people with inadequate food, clothing, or heating; (2) babies sleeping in cold bedrooms; (3) people who remain outdoors for long periods—the homeless, hikers, hunters, etc.; and (4) people who drink alcohol or use illicit drugs.

Warnings signs of hypothermia:

Adults:

  • shivering
  • exhaustion
  • confusion
  • fumbling hands
  • memory loss
  • slurred speech
  • drowsiness

Infants:

  • bright red, cold skin
  • very low energy

What to Do

  • Call 911 immediately.
  • Get the victim into a warm room or shelter.
  • If the victim has on any wet clothing, remove it.
  • Warm the center of the body first—chest, neck, head, and groin—using an electric blanket (if available) or use skin-to-skin contact under loose, dry layers of blankets, clothing, towels, or sheets.
  • Warm beverages can help increase the body temperature, but do not give alcoholic beverages. Do not try to give beverages to an unconscious person.
  • After body temperature has increased, keep the person dry and wrapped in a warm blanket, including the head and neck.
  • Get medical attention as soon as possible.

A person with severe hypothermia may be unconscious and may not seem to have a pulse or to be breathing. In this case, handle the victim gently and call 911 for immediate assistance. Even if the victim appears dead, CPR should be provided. CPR should continue while the victim is being warmed, until the victim responds, and until medical aid becomes available. In some cases, hypothermia victims who appear to be dead can be successfully resuscitated.

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